Homeopathic Research References

Clinical Conditions

Breast Cancer
Breast Cancer
Estrogen Withdrawal in Breast Cancer Survivors
Estrogen Withdrawal in Breast Cancer Survivors
Head and Neck Cancer
Liver, Pancreatic, Gall Bladder and Stomach Cancer
Lung Cancer
Menopause and Cancer
Menopause in Breast Cancer Survivors

Ear, Nose, Throat Disorders
Chancre Sores/Stomatitis
Chancre Sores
Colds/Upper Respiratory Infections
Colds/Upper Respiratory Infections
Colds/Upper Respiratory Infections
Ear Infections
Ear Infections
Ear Infections
Ear Infections
Ear Infections

Gastrointestinal Disorders
Arsenic Poisoning

Immune System Disorders


Musculoskeletal Disorders
Chronic Low Back Pain

Whole Systems of CAM Models for Approaching Homeopathic Research

Bell IR, Caspi O, Schwartz GE, Grant KL, Gaudet TW, Rychener D, et al. Integrative medicine and systemic outcomes research: issues in the emergence of a new model for primary health care. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2002; 162: 133-40. Bell IR et al.
Engel GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science 1977; 196: 129-136. Engel GL.
Fonnebo V, Grimsgaard S, Walach H et al. Researching complementary and alternative treatments – the gatekeepers are not at home. BMC Med Res Methodol 2007; 7 (1):7. Fonnebo V et al.
Fredrickson BL, Losada MF. Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. American Psychologist 2005; 60:678-86. Fredrickson BL
Ritenbaugh C, Verhoef M, Fleishman S et al. Whole systems research: a discipline for studying complementary and alternative medicine. Altern Ther Health Med 2003; 9 (4):32-6. Ritenbaugh C|
Verhoef M, Lewith G, Ritenbaugh C et al. Whole systems research: moving forward. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 2004; 9 (2):87-90.
Verhoef MJ, Lewith, G., Ritenbaugh, C., Boon, H., Fleishman, S., Leis, A. Complementary and alternative medicine whole systems research: Beyond identification of inadequacies of the RCT. Complement Ther Med. 2005a; 13 (3):206-12. Verhoef MJ
Verhoef M, Vanderheyden LC, Fonnebo V. A whole systems research approach to cancer care: why do we need it and how do we get started? Integrative Cancer Therapies 2006; 5 (4):287-92. Verhoef MJ

Observational Studies, Qualitative Research Studies, Individual Difference Studies
Anelli M, Scheepers L, Sermeus G et al. Homeopathy and health related Quality of Life: a survey in six European countries. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy. 2002; 91 (1):18-21.
Bell IR, Koithan, M., Gorman, M.M., Baldwin, C.M. Homeopathic practitioner views of changes in patients undergoing constitutional treatment for chronic disease. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2003b; 9: 39-50. Bell IR
Bikker AP, Mercer SW, Reilly D..A pilot prospective study on the consultation and relational empathy, patient enablement, and health changes over 12 months in patients going to the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug;11(4):591-600. Bikker AP
Colin P. Homeopathy and respiratory allergies: a series of 147 cases. Homeopathy 2006; 95 (2):68-72. Colin P
Concato J, Shah N, Horwitz RI. Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000; 342 (25):1887-92. Concato J
Conception, Campa Huergo, Gustavo Bravo. Successful Use of Homeopathy In Over 2/5 Million People Reported From Cuba. Posted January 1, 2009 by homeopathyresource.
Derasse M, Klein P, Weiser M. The effects of a complex homeopathic medicine compared with acetaminophen in the symptomatic treatment of acute febrile infections in children: an observational study. Explore (NY) 2005; 1 (1):33-9. Derasse M
Endrizzi C, Rossi E, Crudeli L et al. Harm in homeopathy: aggravations, adverse drug events or medication errors? Homeopathy 2005; 94 (4):233-40. Endrizzi C
Guthlin C, Lange O, Walach H. Measuring the effects of acupuncture and homoeopathy in general practice: an uncontrolled prospective documentation approach. BMC Public Health. 2004; 4 (1):6. Guthlin C
Honda K, Jacobson JS. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among United States adults: the influences of personality, coping strategies, and social support. Preventive Medicine 2005; 40 (1):46-53. Honda K
Oberbaum M, Schreiber R, Rosenthal C et al. Homeopathic treatment in emergency medicine: a case series. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 2003; 92 (1):44-7. Oberbaum M
Prasad HR, Malhotra AK, Hanna N et al. Arsenicosis from homeopathic medicines: a growing concern. Clin Exp Dermatol 2006; 31 (3):497-8. Prasad HR
Rabe A, Weiser M, Klein P. Effectiveness and tolerability of a homoeopathic remedy compared with conventional therapy for mild viral infections. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2004; 58 (9):827-32. Rabe A
Riley D, Fischer M, Singh B et al. Homeopathy and conventional medicine: an outcomes study comparing effectiveness in a primary care setting. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2001; 7 (2):149-59. Riley D
Sevar R. Audit of outcome in 455 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy. 2005; 94 (4):215-21. Sevar R
Schlappack O. Homeopathic treatment of radiation-induced itching in breast cancer patients. A prospective observational study. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 2004; 93 (4):210-5. Schlappack O
Schmiedel V, Klein P. A complex homeopathic preparation for the symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections associated with the common cold: An observational study. Explore (NY) 2006; 2 (2):109-14. Schmiedel V
Schroder D, Weiser M, Klein P. Efficacy of a homeopathic Crataegus preparation compared with usual therapy for mild (NYHA II) cardiac insufficiency: results of an observational cohort study. European Journal of Heart Failure 2003; 5 (3):319-26. Schroder D
Spence D, Thompson EA, Barron SJ. Homeopathic treatment for chronic disease: a 6-year university-hospital outpatient observational study. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2005; 11 (5):793-98. Spence D
Steinsbekk A, Ludtke R. Patients’ assessments of the effectiveness of homeopathic care in Norway: a prospective observational multicentre outcome study. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 2005; 94 (1):10-6. Steinsbekk A
Thompson EA, Reilly, D. The homeopathic approach to symptom control in the cancer patient: a prospective observational study. Palliative Medicine 2002; 16 (3):227-33. Thompson EA
Van Haselen R. The economic evaluation of complementary medicine: a staged approach at the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital. British Homoeopathic Journal 2000; 89 (Suppl 1):S23-6. Van Haselen R
Van Wassenhoven M, Ives G. An observational study of patients receiving homeopathic treatment. Homeopathy 2004; 93 (1):3-11. Van Wasenhoven M
Witt CM, Luedtke R, Baur R, Willich SN. Homeopathic Medical Practice: Long-term results of a Cohort Study with 3981 Patients. BMC Public Health. 2005; 5 (1):115 epub. Witt CM
Witt C, Keil T, Selim D et al. Outcome and costs of homoeopathic and conventional treatment strategies: a comparative cohort study in patients with chronic disorders. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2005a; 13 (2):79-86. Witt C

Clinical Trial Studies and Meta-Analyses

Bell IR, Lewis DAI, Brooks AJ et al. Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology 2004c; 43:577-82. Bell IR
Bell IR. Evidence-based homeopathy: empirical questions and methodological considerations for homeopathic clinical research. American Journal of Homeopathic Medicine 2003a; 96: 17-31.
Frass M, Linkesch M, Banyai S et al. Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 2005; 94 (2):75-80. Fraas M
Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K et al. Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Eur J Pediatr 2005; 164 (12):758-67. Frei H
Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K et al. Randomised controlled trials of homeopathy in hyperactive children: treatment procedure leads to an unconventional study design Experience with open-label homeopathic treatment preceding the Swiss ADHD placebo controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. Homeopathy 2007; 96 (1):35-41. Frei H
Frei H, Thurneysen A, von Ammon K. Methodological difficulties in homeopathic treatment of children with ADD/ADHD. J Altern Complement Med 2006a; 12 (2):104; author reply Frei H
Frei H, von Ammon K, Thurneysen A. Treatment of hyperactive children: increased efficiency through modifications of homeopathic diagnostic procedure. Homeopathy. 2006b; 95 (3):163-70. Frei H
Jacobs J, Jonas WB, Jimenez-Perez M, Crothers D. Homeopathy for childhood diarrhea: combined results and metaanalysis from three randomized, controlled clinical trials. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Mar;22(3):229-34. Jacobs, J
Jacobs J. Homeopathic research: fact or fantasy? – a review of the evidence. American Journal of Homeopathic Medicine 2002; 95 (1):26-32.
Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K et al. Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2005a; 11 (1):21-7. Jacobs J
Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Gloyd SS et al. Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine: a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. Pediatrics. 1994; 93 (5):719-25. Jacobs J
Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Malthouse S et al. Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhea: results from a clinical trial in Nepal. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2000; 6 (2):131-9. Jacobs J
Jacobs J, Springer, D.A., Crothers, D. Homeopathic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a preliminary randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2001; 20:177-83. Jacobs J
Jacobs J, Williams AL, Girard C et al. Homeopathy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot randomized-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2005b; 11 (5):799-806. Jacobs J
Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H et al. Homeopathy for anxiety and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the research. Homeopathy 2006; 95 (3):151-62. Pilkington K
Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H et al. Homeopathy for depression: a systematic review of the research evidence.[see comment]. [Review] [44 refs]. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 2005; 94 (3):153-63. Pilkington K
Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, Melchart D, Eitel F, Hedges LV, Jonas WB. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet. 1997 Sep 20;350(9081):834-43. Erratum in: Lancet 1998 Jan 17;351(9097):220. Linde K
Schneider B, Klein P, Weiser M. Treatment of vertigo with a homeopathic complex remedy compared with usual treatments: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Arzneimittel Forschung 2005; 55 (1):23-9. Schneider B
Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, Nartey L, Juni P, Dorig S, Sterne JA, Pewsner D, Egger M. Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy. Lancet. 2005; 66 (9487):726-32. Shang A
Walach H, Lowes T, Mussbach D et al. The long-term effects of homeopathic treatment of chronic headaches: one year follow-up and single case time series analysis. British Homoeopathic Journal 2001; 90 (2):63-72. Walach H

Practice Based Research Studies

Boon H, Cherkin, DC, Erro, J, Sherman, KJ, Milliman, B, Booker, J, Cramer, EH, Smith, MJ, Deyo, RA, Eisenberg, DM. Practice patterns of naturopathic physicians: results from a random survey of licensed practitioners in two US States. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2004; 4 (1):14. Boon H
Jacobs J, Chapman EH, Crothers D. Patient characteristics and practice patterns of physicians using homeopathy. Archives of Family Medicine 1998; 7 (6):537-40. Chapman EH
Rowe T. National Homeopathic Practitioner Survey. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy. April, 2007. Rowe T
Rowe T. National Homeopathic Patient Survey. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy. April, 2008. Rowe T
Rowe T. National Homeopathic Educational Survey. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy. January, 2009. Rowe T
Witt, Claudia; Ludtke, Rainer, Mingler, Nills; Willich, Stefan; How healthy are chronically ill patients after eight years of homeopathic treatment? Results from a long term observational study; BMC Public Health; 2008; 8: 413.

Basic Sciences Relevant to Homeopathy

Becker-Witt C, Weibhuhn T.E.R., Ludtke, R., Willich, S.N. Quality assessment of physical research in homeopathy. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2003; 9 (1):113-32. Becker-Witt
Bell IR, Lewis, D., Brooks, A.J., Lewis, S., Schwartz, G.E. Gas discharge visualization evaluation of ultramolecular doses of homeopathic medicines under blinded, controlled conditions. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2003c; 9: 25-38. Bell IR
Bellavite P, Ortolani R, Pontarollo F et al. Immunology and homeopathy. 4. Clinical studies-part 2. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006; 3 (4):397-409. Bellavite P #1, Bellavite P #2
Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, Mannaioni PF, Roberfroid M, Sainte-Laudy J, Wiegant FA. Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation. Inflamm Res. 2004; 53 (5):181-8. Belon P
Binder M, Baumgartner S, Thurneysen A. The effects of a 45x potency of arsenicum album on wheat seedling growth — a reproduction trial. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2005; 12 (5):284-91. Bindeer M
Brizzi M, Lazzarato L, Nani D et al. A biostatistical insight into the As(2)O(3) high dilution effects on the rate and variability of wheat seedling growth. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2005; 12 (5):277-83. Brizzi M
Dittmann J, Harisch G. Characterization of differing effects caused by homeopathically prepared and conventional dilutions using cytochrome P450 2E1 and other enzymes as detection systems. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 1996; 2 (2):279-90. Dittmann J
Elia V, Niccoli, M. New physico-chemical properties of extremely diluted aqueous solutions. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2004; 75:815-36. Elia V
Elia V, Niccoli, M. Thermodynamics of extremely diluted aqueous solutions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1999; 879:241-8. Elia V
Linde K, Jonas, W.B., Melchart, D., Worku, F., Wagner, H., Eitel, F. Critical review and meta-analysis of serial agitated dilutions in experimental toxicology. Human Experimental Toxicology 1994; 13:481-92. Linde K
Porozov S, Cahalon L, Weiser M et al. Inhibition of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha secretion from resting and activated human immunocytes by the homeopathic medication Traumeel S. Clinical & Developmental Immunology 2004; 11 (2):143-9. Porozov S
Rey L. Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride. Physica A: Statistical mechanics and its applications. 2003; 323:67-74.
Roy R, Tiller W, Bell IR et al. The Structure of Liquid Water: Novel Insights from Materials Research and Potential Relevance to Homeopathy. Materials Research Innovation 2005; 9 (4):557-608.
Tiller WA. On chemical medicine, thermodynamics, and homeopathy. J Altern Complement Med 2006; 12 (7):685-93. Tiller WA
Vickers AJ. Independent replication of pre-clinical research in homeopathy: a systematic review. Forschende Komplementarmedizin 1999; 6 (6):311-20. Vickers AJ
Witt C, Ludtke R, Weisshuhn TE et al. High homeopathic potencies are different from potentized solvent when investigated with the REDEM technology. Forschende Komplementarmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde 2005b; 12 (1):6-13. Witt C
Witt CM, Bluth M, Hinderlich S et al. Does potentized HgCl2 (Mercurius corrosivus) affect the activity of diastase and alpha-amylase? J Altern Complement Med 2006a; 12 (4):359-65. Witt CM
Witt CM, Ludtke R, Weisshuhn TE et al. The role of trace elements in homeopathic preparations and the influence of container material, storage duration, and potentisation. Forsch Komplementarmed 2006b; 13 (1):15-21. Witt CM

Preclinical Studies

Bell IR, Lewis DA, 2nd, Lewis SE et al. EEG alpha sensitization in individualized homeopathic treatment of fibromyalgia. International Journal of Neuroscience 2004a; 114 (9):1195-220. Bell IR
Bell IR, Lewis DA, 2nd, Schwartz GE et al. Electroencephalographic cordance patterns distinguish exceptional clinical responders with fibromyalgia to individualized homeopathic medicines. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2004b; 10 (2):285-99. Bell IR #2
Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Evaluation of protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Chelidonium majus, during azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2004; 42 (7):698-714. Bisswas SJ
Datta S, Mallick P, Bukhsh AR. Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. Comparative efficacy of an antibiotic, actinomycin D alone and in combination with either of two microdoses. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1999; 7 (3):156-63. Datta S
Kundu SN, Mitra K, Khuda Bukhsh AR. Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (Arsenicum-Aalbum-30) in reducing cytotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: IV. Pathological changes, protein profiles, and content of DNA and RNA. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2000; 8 (3):157-65. Kundu SN
Mallick P, Chakrabarti MJ, Guha B et al. Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album, on arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2003; 3 (7):http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/3/7. Mallick P
Mitra K, Kundu SN, Khuda Bukhsh AR. Efficacy of a potentized homoeopathic drug (Arsenicum Album-30) in reducing toxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. On alterations in body weight, tissue weight and total protein. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1999; 7 (1):24-34. Mitra K
Phatak S, Multani AS, Bannerji P. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer; Int J Oncol. 2003 Oct;23(4):975-82. Phatak S
Preuss SF, Wittekindt C. Do homeopathic drugs affect microcirculation in vertigo? Microvasc Res 2006; 71 (2):141. Preuss SF
Sukul A, Sinhabau SP, Sukul NC. Reduction of alcohol induced sleep time in albino mice by potentized Nux vomica prepared with 90% ethanol. British Homoeopathic Journal 1999; 88 (2):58-61. Sukul A
Sukul NC, Bala, S.K., Bhattacharyya, B. Prolonged cataleptogenic effects of potentized homoeopathic drugs. Psychopharmacology 1986; 89:338-9. Sukul NC
Ruiz G, Torres JL, Michel O et al. Homeopathic effect on heart rate variability. British Homoeopathic Journal 1999; 88 (3):106-11. Ruiz G
Ruiz G, Torres, J.L. Homeopathic effect on the sleep pattern of rats. British Homoeopathic Journal 1997; 86:201-6.

Entanglement, and Complex Systems Theories of Remedy Action

Bell IR, Baldwin, C.M., Schwartz, G.E.R. Translating a nonlinear systems theory model for homeopathy into empirical tests. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine 2002b; 8: 58-66. Bell IR
Bellavite P. Complexity science and homeopathy: a synthetic overview. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy. 2003; 92 (4):203-12. Bellavite P
Calabrese EJ. Paradigm lost, paradigm found: the re-emergence of hormesis as a fundamental dose response model in the toxicological sciences. Environ Pollut. 2005 Dec;138(3):379-411. Review. Calabrese EJ
Coffey DS. Self-organization, complexity, and chaos: the new biology for medicine. Nature Medicine. 1998; 4: 882-885. Coffey DS
Hyland M. Extended network generalized entanglement theory: therapeutic mechanisms, empirical predictions, and investigations. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2003; 9: 919-936. Hyland M
Hyland ME, Lewith, G.T. Oscillatory effects in a homeopathic clinical trial: an explanation using complexity theory, and implications for clinical practice. Homeopathy 2002; 91: 145-149. Hyland ME
Milgrom LR. Patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) entanglement. Part 1: a qualitative, non-local metaphor for homeopathy based on quantum theory.[see comment]. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy 2002a; 91: 239-48 (8-part series to date). Milgrom LR
Milgrom LR. Entanglement, knowledge, and their possible effects on the outcomes of blinded trials of homeopathic provings. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Apr;12(3):271-9. Ligrom LR #2
Torres JL. Homeopathic effect: a network perspective. Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy. 2002; 91 (2):89-94. Torres JL
Torres JL, Ruiz MAG. Stochastic resonance and the homeopathic effect. British Homoeopathic Journal 1996; 85:134-40.
Walach H, Jonas WB, Ives J, vanWijk R, Weingartner O. Research on homeopathy: state of the art. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):813-29. Review. Wallach H #1
Walach H. Magic of signs: a non-local interpretation of homeopathy.[see comment]. British Homoeopathic Journal 2000; 89: 127-40. Wallach H #2
Walach H. What happens in homeopathic remedy provings? Results from a double-blind crossover study of belladonna 30CH and an analysis by grade of membership (GoM). In: Chez RA, editor. Future Directions and Current Issues of Research in Homeopathy. Freiburg, Germany: Samueli Institute, 2002a: 110-133.
Walach H. Entanglement model of homeopathy as an example of generalised entanglement predicted by weak quantum theory. Forschende Komplementarmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine 2003a; 10: 192-200. Wallach H #4
Walach H. Reinventing the wheel will not make it rounder: controlled trials of homeopathy reconsidered. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2003b; 9: 7-13. Wallach H #5
Walach H, Jonas, W.B. Homeopathy. In: Lewith G, Jonas, W.B., Walach, H., editor. Clinical Research in Complementary Therapies. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2002b: 229-246.